Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP) is known by many names and is considered the deadliest form of child abuse. Although the condition was named in 1976 and there is now a substantial body of scientific literature about this type of abuse, to date, patient‐centered approaches to early identification, intervention, and prevention have been absent from this literature. The purpose of this chapter is to recommend patient‐centered approaches to identifying MSbP in the clinical setting to facilitate prevention and early intervention. It also recommends patient‐centered practices that can be implemented to reduce the MSbP‐related morbidity and mortality contributed by the healthcare system. The evolving nomenclature and definition of MSbP abuse has been an obstacle to achieving scientific consensus on the topic. Yet, the body of scientific literature on the subject is large. This literature is reviewed to enumerate the healthcare system's contribution to MSbP abuse. The Haddon matrix, a public health framework, is applied to MSbP abuse in order to guide the development of recommendations of patient‐centered approaches that should be implemented to reduce the healthcare system's contribution to the morbidity and mortality that MSbP victims face.
Part of the book: Patient Centered Medicine
This chapter provides an overview of tooth morphology, including a review of tooth anatomy, tooth development, and associated nomenclature and numbering systems. First, basic tooth morphology nomenclature is presented. Next, various tooth numbering systems are described and discussed, and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) system is detailed. Third, tooth surfaces and ridges are explained along with terminology, followed by an explanation of tooth crown and root anatomy. Fourth, the stages of tooth formation are described, starting with the bud stage, and followed by the cap stage, bell stage, and maturation. Annotated diagrams are presented for clarity. Finally, two currently accepted hypotheses explaining tooth formation are presented.
Part of the book: Human Teeth