Liquefaction has proved to be one of the major geotechnical issues caused by earthquakes. It is one of the most costly phenomena and has affected several cities around the world. Although the topic has been studied since the 1960s, new questions are emerging. The earthquakes of Chile in 2010, New Zealand in 2010 and 2011, and Japan in 2011 had in common not only being some of the largest earthquakes of this decade but also having a problem of extensive liquefaction. Although most seismic codes have provisions against liquefaction, there are still some misconceptions regarding the characteristics of soil susceptibility and the effect of repeated liquefaction. This chapter introduces a detailed report of the damage caused by liquefaction in the cities affected by those earthquakes and also highlights observations in liquefied areas that were unexpected. Advanced geotechnical testing was conducted and compiled to compare them with previous assessment criteria and observations. A more comprehensive framework for the evaluation of liquefaction susceptibility and countermeasures will be presented and a roadmap of future work in the area will be described.
Part of the book: Earthquakes