This chapter reviews the study and development of biological, enzymatic and bio-molecular systems for carbon dioxide capture and further sequestration or even utilization. Regardless of the interest on the use of the captured CO2 as C1 synthon on the manufacture of added-value compounds, there is a tremendous unbalance between the requirements of the contemporary society (leading to a massive production of carbon dioxide) and the framework of commercialization of the products from CO2 utilization. In this context, viable options are storage as a solid in the form of calcium or magnesium carbonate and conversion into other energetic frameworks. In addition, it is important to highlight that the conventional energy resources are progressively being replaced by renewable resources. While the change in energetic paradigm is not accomplished, systems that capture and convert carbon dioxide are highly sought. To this end, bio-inspired systems will be presented, starting from the use of compounds from the chiral pool, such as amino acids, saccharides and related bio-polymers, involved in the physical and chemical capture, sequestration and/or utilization of CO2. Additionally, enzymatic systems are presented in the context of sequestration of CO2 in the form of solid carbonates or even utilization of this C1 synthon in the preparation of fuels and commodity chemicals. Carbonic anhydrase is by far the most studied enzyme, as it catalyses the inter-conversion between CO2 and hydrogencarbonate in an effective mode. The biological option comprises the utilization of methanogens, acetogens and other organisms leading to the formation of added-value compounds. Most of the described systems are based on microbial electro-synthesis model and microbial carbon-capture cell prototypes.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage