Total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis secondary to development dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is facing increasing levels of complexity with increasing grade of deformity. The dysplastic acetabulum is characterized by diminished bone stock with decreased lateral coverage. Therefore, it is challenging to restore the anatomic center of rotation and ensure adequate acetabular component fixation. Surgical strategies include a medialization of the acetabular component, a higher hip center, lateral structural bone grafting and the selection of smaller component sizes to improve native bone coverage. Excessive femoral anteversion is commonly encountered in patients with developmental dysplasia. Moreover, the intramedullary canal is narrow and the neck often aligned in valgus. Modular implants are helpful to address the altered femoral anatomy and also facilitate femoral shortening osteotomies in patients with high hip dislocation. Although clinical results are comparable to primary total hip replacement in primary osteoarthritis, the risk for revision surgery due to dislocation and loosening is increased. The current chapter reviews classification, preoperative planning, and surgical strategies for patients undergoing THA for osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia.
Part of the book: Developmental Diseases of the Hip
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the preferred treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the hip. The posterior, posterolateral, direct lateral, anterolateral, or the anterior approaches are the currently established surgical approaches for THA. Over the last decade, the anterior approach has gained increasing popularity. Its muscle-sparing nature and fluoroscopy-guided component positioning are the most important benefits. It has been suggested that postoperative recovery is facilitated by an anterior approach. Patients do not need to follow hip precautions, and can return to driving after 1 week. The anterior approach uses a muscle interval between the tensor fasciae latae and the rectus femoris to open the capsule without detachment of muscles. Especially, the external rotators and posterior capsule remain intact and reduce the risk of posterior dislocation. Accuracy of acetabular component positioning has an impact on postoperative dislocation rates, polyethylene wear, and impingement. When the operation is done in a supine position, fluoroscopy is available to check the acetabular component inclination and anteversion during THA as well as leg length and offset. The current chapter reports on the surgical approach, surgical technique, and results of anterior THA.
Part of the book: Total Hip Replacement