In recent years, the anti-leukemic potential of Natural Killer (NK) cells and their role in hematologic malignancies and in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants (HSCT) has attracted greater interest and a recent study by Cooley S. et al. showed a better clinical outcome when patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia received a transplant from unrelated Group B KIR haplotypes donors. As a consequence of these results, an algorithm called “KIR B-content score” was formulated. The aim of our research is a retrospective analysis of HSC unrelated transplants performed in our center to analyze the effect of the donor KIR B status on the clinical-outcome. Our results showed a better overall survival-rate in the AML recipients, HLA mismatched with the donor, when the donor KIR B content status is Best/Better (37% vs 18% at three years P=0,028). Moreover, we observed that AML recipients, whose Donors KIR B status was Best/Better, had more incidence of aGvHD grade I and II than patients whose Donors KIR B status was Neutral (70% vs 26%) and also a lower rate of relapse (36% vs 58%) and a better Disease Free Survival-rate (58% vs 38% at three years P=0,1) because of a better GvL effect.
Part of the book: Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering