Viticulture and winery origins in Poland date to the tenth century, but their tradition has been reborn in the last ten years, resulting in a development of small vineyards producing excellent wines not only for the local market. Due to the cold climate, usually short summers with moderate and low temperatures, the grapes are characterized by lower sugar content and higher acidity compared to those grown in the south of Europe. According to the European Union regulations, Poland was classified as the coldest wine-growing region (A) and officially acknowledged as a wine-producing country. The grapevine cultivars adopted to the harsh climatic conditions give the Polish grape wines some unique sensory features. The most popular varieties of grapes for the production of red wine are Regent, Rondo, Pinot Noir, Maréchal Foch, Cabernet Cortis, Tryumf Alzacji, Cascade and Dornfelder. For white wine production, Solaris, Riesling, Seyval Blanc, Pinot Gris, Johanniter, Jutrzenka, Hibernal, Aurora, Bianka, Traminer, Jutrzenka and Siberia are mostly used in Poland. This chapter presents Polish grape winery with its specificity and prospects for the future. The traditional products of Polish fermentation industry, fruit wines and meads, are also mentioned.
Part of the book: Grape and Wine Biotechnology