The association between unemployment and hospital admission is known, but the causal relationship is still under discussion. The aim of the present analysis is to compare results of a cross-sectional and a cohort approach considering overall hospital admission and hospital admission due to cancer and circulatory disease. Register-based data were analysed for the period of 2006–2009. In the cross-sectional analysis, a multiple logistic regression model was conducted based on the year 2006, and cohort information from the same year onward up to 2009 was available for a Cox regression model. Social welfare compensated unemployment and both types of disease-specific hospital admission were associated to be statistically significant in the cross-sectional analysis. With regard to circulatory disease, the cohort approach suggests that social welfare compensated unemployment might lead to hospital admission due to the disease. Given the significant results in the cross-sectional analysis for hospital admission due to cancer, the unfound cohort effect might indicate a reverse causation suggesting that the disease caused joblessness, and finally social welfare compensated unemployment and not vice versa. Comparing different study designs allows for a better causal interpretation, which should be recommended in future quantitative social welfare analysis.
Part of the book: An Analysis of Contemporary Social Welfare Issues
The aim of this chapter is to critically reflect definitions of hazard, risk, and risk perception and their assessments used in different scientific disciplines and give examples of the potential implications for scientific discussions, knowledge management, and risk communication. Scientists with backgrounds in public health, psychology, environmental health, occupational health, engineering, sociology, and medicine were asked for a definition of hazard, risk, risk assessment, and risk perception seen from their specific scientific disciplines. Hazard is generally seen as an adverse event or condition. For most risk definitions, probability and severity are important aspects. Often a quantification of risk is desired, whereas risk perception is seen as a subjective appraisal and a cognitive construct. As risk perceptions are based on a combination of knowledge and individual values and affects, it may not provide a reliable guidance for risk management decisions on a societal level. Discipline differences are mainly connected to terminology and interpretation of key concepts, but the differences are based on different tasks and perspectives. For dealing with controversies in science across disciplines, an acceptance and appreciation of terminology and perspectives from different scientific disciplines are needed to ensure a transparent risk assessment process.
Part of the book: Knowledge Management Strategies and Applications