We present a brief introduction of the fractional quantum Hall effect—a description of the phenomenon is provided and basic requirements for its formation are discussed. We recall assumptions of the standard composite fermion theory. Additionally, we present a list of the fractional quantum Hall effect puzzles. The chapter also introduces the non-local approach to quantum Hall physics, which is entirely based on a mathematical concept of braid groups and their reduction stimulated by an external magnetic field (in two-dimensional spaces). We emphasize the connection between a one-dimensional unitary representation of the system braid group and the particle statistics (unavoidable for any correlated Hall-like states). We implement our topological approach to construct hierarchies of FQHE fillings for various two-dimensional structures, including multi-layers. We show the remarkable agreement of our results with experimental findings.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Graphene Research
Recent experimental data shown a promising direction in employing nano-plasmonics for increasing efficiencies of the solar cells. The effect is due to metallic nanoparticles’ plasmons mediating energy transfer from the incoming e-m wave to the semiconductor in a regime violating limits in energy transitions imposed by the momentum conservation, due to translational invariance departure in surface nano-modified system. The chapter presents analysis of material dependence of near-field coupling to band electrons of surface plazmons in metallic nanoparticles deposited on the top of semiconductor substrate in nano-modified solar cells. Various materials for metal and substrate are comparatively studied upon the quantum Fermi Golden Rule approach in theoretical quantitative modeling of the plasmon-electron coupling that enhances ordinary PV effect. The material dependence of the plasmon-mediated efficiency growth in two types of solar cells, multi-crystalline Si and CIGS (copper-indium-gallium-diselenide), modified by various surface-deposited metallic nanoparticles is additionally illustrated by the experimental data.
Part of the book: Plasmonics