Need for better understanding and more accurate estimation of radiative fluxes in urban environments, specifically urban surface albedo and exitance, motivates development of new remote sensing and three‐dimensional (3D) radiative transfer (RT) modeling methods. The discrete anisotropic radiative transfer (DART) model, one of the most comprehensive physically based 3D models simulating Earth/atmosphere radiation interactions, was used in combination with satellite data (e.g., Landsat‐8 observations) to better parameterize the radiative budget components of cities, such as Basel in Switzerland. After presenting DART and its recent RT modeling functions, we present a methodological concept for estimating urban fluxes using any satellite image data.
Part of the book: Sustainable Urbanization
The rate at which global climate change is happening is arguably the most pressing environmental challenge of the century, and it affects our cities. Climate change exerts added stress on urban areas through increased numbers of heat waves threatening people’s well-being and, in many cases, human lives. Earth observation (EO) systems and the advances in remote sensing technology increase the opportunities for monitoring the thermal behavior of cities. The Sentinels constitute the first series of operational satellites for Copernicus, a program launched to provide data, information, services, and knowledge in support of Europe’s goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment. This chapter examines the exploitation of EO data for monitoring the urban climate, with particular focus on the urban surface cover and temperature. Two example applications are analyzed: the mapping of the urban surface and its characteristics, using EO data and the estimation of urban temperatures. Approaches, like the ones described in this chapter, can become operational once adapted to Sentinels, since their long-term operation plan guarantees the future supply of satellite observations. Thus, the described methods may support planning activities related to climate change mitigation and adaptation in cities, as well as routine urban planning activities.
Part of the book: Multi-purposeful Application of Geospatial Data