Tropical rainforests are the cradle of life (perfect conditions for life) on Earth, i.e., rich in plant species composition (>250 plant species/hectare) and fauna diversity (>50% of animal species in the world). Rainforests occur near the Earth's equator and cover 6% of the Earth's surface across the tropical regions and are characterized by wet climate, i.e., heavy rainfall (125—660 cm), relative humidity (77—88%) and temperature (20—34°C). They are dominated by a wide range of broad-leaved trees that form dense canopy and the most complex ecosystem. Currently, the tropical rainforest ecosystem is changing faster than ever in human history due to anthropogenic activities, such as habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation for timber and conversion into agriculture fields (oil palm plantation), mining, fire, climate change, etc. The habitat loss and degradation had adversely influenced the distribution and richness of the fauna species. The current information on the fauna diversity of tropical rainforest is not sufficient and in the future, more research is required to document the various community parameters of the fauna species in order to conserve and protect them. For better future, conservation, and management, we must identify the major drivers of changes and how these factors alter the tropical rainforest.
Part of the book: Tropical Forests