Musical flue instruments such as the pipe organ and flute mainly consist of the acoustic pipe resonance and the jet impinging against the pipe edge. The edge tone is used to be considered as the energy source coupling to the pipe resonance. However, jet-drive models describing the complex jet/pipe interaction were proposed in the late 1960s. Such models were more developed and then improved to the discrete-vortex model and vortex-layer model by introducing fluid-dynamical viewpoint, particularly vortex sound theory on acoustic energy generation and dissipation. Generally, the discrete-vortex model is well applied to thick jets, while the jet-drive model and the vortex-layer model are valid to thin jets used in most flue instruments. The acoustically induced vortex (acoustic vortex) is observed near the amplitude saturation with the aid of flow visualization and is regarded as the final sound dissipation agent. On the other hand, vortex layers consisting of very small vortices along both sides of the jet are visualized by the phase-locked PIV and considered to generate the acceleration unbalance between both vortex layers that induces the jet wavy motion coupled with the pipe resonance. Vortices from the jet visualized by direct numerical simulations are briefly discussed.
Part of the book: Vortex Dynamics Theories and Applications