Vorticity plays a key role in determining fluid flow dynamics, especially in vortex-dominated flows. Vortex methods, which are based on the vorticity-based formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, have provided deeper insight into physical reality in a variety of flows using vorticity as a primary variable. The penalized vortex-in-cell (VIC) method is a state-of-the-art variant of vortex methods. In the penalized VIC method, Lagrangian fluid particles are traced by continuously updating their position and strength from solutions at an Eulerian grid. This hybrid method retains beneficial features of pure Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. It offers an efficient and effective way to simulate unsteady viscous flows, thereby enabling application to a wider range of problems in flows. This article presents the fundamentals of the penalized VIC method and its implementations.
Part of the book: Vortex Dynamics and Optical Vortices