Urban and peri-urban livestock farming has been expanding in recent decades due to high demand for animal proteins to feed the growing urban population. The increase in number of livestock and livestock keepers has led to increased manure production in a shrinking space. This chapter evaluates the risks of transmission of manure-borne pathogen between cattle, humans and the environment in urban and peri-urban areas. Cattle and manure management practices, government directives, the presence of zoonotic pathogens and risk of bacteria transmission were assessed by observations, interviews, bacteria isolation and characterization and statistical modeling. Cattle are kept under intensive and extensive systems. Different techniques are used to collect, convey, store and dispose manure, all of which lead to direct contact with humans. The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in cattle and water was 2.2% (95% CI: 0.99–3.67) and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.025–2.44), respectively. There was transmission of bacteria between cattle, humans and the environment in 52% of clusters. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, livestock and the environment to risk of infection or contamination. Holistic approach can be adopted in this scenario to attain one health status and improve urban and peri-urban livestock contribution to community livelihood simultaneously.
Part of the book: Livestock Science
Working on a diverse species of bacteria that have hundreds of pathotypes representing hundreds of strains and many closely related family members is a challenge. Appropriate research design is required not only to achieve valid desired outcome but also to minimize the use of resources, including time to outcome and intervention. This chapter outlines basics of Escherichia coli isolation and characterization strategies that can assist in research designing that matches the set objectives. Types of samples to be collected, collection and storage strategies, and processing of samples are described. Different approaches to isolation, confirmation and concentration of various E. coli strains are summarized in this chapter. Characterization and typing of E. coli isolates by biochemical, serological, and molecular methods have been explained so that an appropriate choice is made to suite a specific E. coli strain/pathotype. Some clues on sample and isolate preservation for future use are outlined, and general precautions regarding E. coli handling are also presented to the researcher to avoid improper planning and execution of E. coli-related research. Given different options, the best E. coli research design, however, should try as much as possible to shorten the length of time to outcomes.
Part of the book: Escherichia coli
Mycobacterial infections and tuberculosis pose global public health threats. High tuberculosis morbidities and mortalities are due to the diagnosis problems among other causes. This chapter describes and compares diverse mycobacterial infections and tuberculosis diagnostic efforts and point-out the direction so as to inform areas of and motivate research toward early, rapid, and accurate diagnosis for effective TB control. We have grouped diagnostic approaches according to the type of sample taken for or organ targeted during diagnosis. The sputum-based methods include smear microscopy, culture, and rat sniffing. Interferon-γ (INF-γ) release assays, transcriptional blood signatures, and proteomic profiling use blood samples while colorimetric sensor array (CSA) and mass spectrometry use urine samples. Patho-physiological methods include tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and radiography. Chromatography and acoustic wave detection can also be used to diagnose TB from breath. Comparative description of these methods is based on a time frame to diagnosis, accuracy, cost, and convenience. The trend shows that there is a move from time-consuming, slow and narrow-spectrum to quick and broad-spectrum TB diagnostic procedures. The sputum-based and patho-physiological approaches remain conformist while blood-based procedures lead research developments. Absence of single best approach calls for synergistic research combinations that form accurate, rapid, cheap, and convenient package at point-of-care centers.
Part of the book: Basic Biology and Applications of Actinobacteria