Marine fishing occurs along the coast and oceanic islands within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Brazil and is practiced mainly in an industrial fashion in the southern and southeastern regions of the country as well as in an artisanal fashion in the northern and northeastern regions. Artisanal marine fishing is practiced by fishermen who use sailing rafts or mid-size motorboats in daily fishing activities or activities that surpass 20 days at sea. To face the ocean and extract sustenance and income, the majority of artisanal fishermen do not have advanced fishing technologies, but rather empirical knowledge passed from one generation to another, which has allowed fishermen to maintain their activities for hundreds of years. The shared knowledge with regard to fishing and gear as well as fishing territories and the discovery of new territories allows artisanal fishermen to maintain catches while resources have become scarce. However, different factors in urban areas have been contributing to changes in artisanal marine fishing, such as the facility to education and jobs in other sectors of the economy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the experiences of artisanal fishermen in traditional communities of northeastern Brazil in the occurrence of urbanization. Traditionally in artisanal fishing, the transmission of knowledge occurs in the family, generally from father to son. However, this traditional transmission of knowledge is being lost in urban fishing communities. The urban environment facilitates access to formal education and provides opportunities for both formal and informal jobs, leading to income in more attractive sectors to the sons of fishermen than the activity of fishing. This is caused by changes in schooling and has triggered the avoidance of youths with regard to fishing activities. Moreover, urban pressures, such as the loss of areas of embarkation and landing, further hinder the maintenance of fishing in such areas. Thus, issues related to urbanization have been changing the structure of fishing communities and compromising the maintenance and sustainability of marine artisanal fishing activities in urban areas.
Part of the book: Sustainable Urbanization