Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECR). They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, the very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for detection techniques and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. We developed the FPGA trigger which is generated by a neural network. The algorithm can recognize various waveform types. It has been developed and tested on ADC traces of the Pierre Auger surface detectors. We developed the algorithm of artificial neural network on a MATLAB platform. Trained network that we implemented into the largest Cyclone V E FPGA was used for the prototype of the front-end board for the AugerPrime. We tested several variants, and the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm (trainlm) was the most efficient. The network was trained: (a) to recognize ‘old’ very inclined showers (real Auger data were used as patterns for both positive and negative markers: for reconstructed inclined showers and for triggered by time over threshold (ToT), respectively, (b) to recognize ‘neutrino-induced showers’. Here, we used simulated data for positive markers and vertical real showers for negative ones.
Part of the book: Artificial Neural Networks