This chapter covers the advances in establishment and optimization of brassinosteroids (BRs) in the alleviation of abiotic stresses such as water, salinity, temperature, and heavy metals in plant system, especially roots. Plant roots regulate their developmental and physiological processes in response to various internal and external stimuli. Studies are in progress to improve plant root adaptations to stress factors. BRs are a group of steroidal hormones that play important roles in a wide range of developmental phenomena, and recently they became an alleviation agent for stress tolerance in plants. This review is expected to provide a resource for researchers interested in abiotic stress alleviation with BRs.
Part of the book: Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants
Barley has been cultivated for more than 10,000 years. Barley improvement studies always have the privilege of the breeders and scientists. This review is expected to provide a resource for researchers interested in barley improvement research in terms of mutation breeding, tissue culture, gene transfers, gene editing, molecular markers, transposons, epigenetic, genomic studies and system biology. We aimed to discuss some important and/or recent studies and improvements about barley for understanding the factors responsible for converting barley plants into the superior cereals, which occurred through gene transfers, gene editing and molecular breeding, which is important and could help us enhance the current pool of cultivated barley species to provide enough material for the future.
Part of the book: Brewing Technology