Our aim in this chapter is to present the state of the art, including our own group research, in the field of immunosuppressant pharmacogenetics in the four main types of solid organ transplantation: kidney, heart, lung, and liver. The main focus will be on those findings in the field that have been widely investigated and then in those that are close to clinical implementation, mainly CYP3A5 genotyping for the adjustment of the initial tacrolimus dose. This recommendation will be discussed in more detail, explaining its clinical potential as well as its limitations. To end, a short opinion about the feasibility of implementation in the health systems as well as discussion about private companies selling pharmacogenetic tests will be presented.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Transplantology
Gene therapy is a therapeutic strategy that aims to employ nucleic acids as drugs for the transient or permanent treatment of inherited or acquired pathologies. Based on the type of vector employed for the gene transfer, gene therapy can be classified as viral gene therapy and nonviral gene therapy. Nonviral gene therapy is less efficient but safer than viral gene therapy. Hydrodynamic naked DNA transfer has shown great translational potential, achieving therapeutic levels of a human protein in the murine model. The translational process of the procedure has already been performed. Different radiologic and surgical approaches permitted pressurizing the liver in vivo by excluding its vascularization partially or totally. These approaches mediated a tissue rate of human alpha-1-antitrypsin protein translation (100–1000 copies per cell) close to those obtained with the mouse gold standard model in a safe mode that could be translated to human settings.
Part of the book: Liver Research and Clinical Management