Part of the book: Current Issues and Future Direction in Kidney Transplantation
Our aim in this chapter is to present the state of the art, including our own group research, in the field of immunosuppressant pharmacogenetics in the four main types of solid organ transplantation: kidney, heart, lung, and liver. The main focus will be on those findings in the field that have been widely investigated and then in those that are close to clinical implementation, mainly CYP3A5 genotyping for the adjustment of the initial tacrolimus dose. This recommendation will be discussed in more detail, explaining its clinical potential as well as its limitations. To end, a short opinion about the feasibility of implementation in the health systems as well as discussion about private companies selling pharmacogenetic tests will be presented.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Transplantology
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPD-C) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a lysosomal storage disorder. Treatment has been supportive and symptomatic. In animal studies, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) showed a significant decrease in cerebellar damage, neurological progression, and higher lifespan. Based on these results, HP-β-CD has been tested in NPD-C patients for last 8 years. The first compassionate uses of intravenous HP-β-CD obtained a limited improvement in neurological symptoms, probably associated to the non-permeation of the blood-brain barrier. The change or combination with intrathecal administrations of HP-β-CD achieved higher benefits, especially improvement or stabilization of NPD-C progression. Biomarkers of neurological cholesterol homeostasis are being investigated in order to quantify the response of HP-β-CD treatment. The results of a clinical trial recently published have reproduced the slowing of NPD-C progression in 14 patients treated with a dose-escalation protocol of HP-β-CD intrathecal monthly infusions, with respect to a historical comparison cohort. The safety profile of this therapy is acceptable, being the loss of hearing as the most frequent adverse event. However, some severe toxicities have been reported in relation with HP-β-CD, including chemical meningitis and fever. The short experience with HP-β-CD suggested that it could be effective in the management of NPD-C.
Part of the book: Cyclodextrin