Advanced membrane systems are regarded as an important portion of controllable separation processes, such as gas separation and water purification. The ideal materials should have good permeability for selected particle sizes, high stiffness to withstand high pressures applied, large surface area and micro- or nanopore structures for excellent selectivity. Recently, graphene with oxygen-containing functional groups and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, obtained via chemical oxidation of graphite, achieved tremendous properties that include excellent mechanical strength, large relative surface area, unique honeycomb lattice two-dimensional structure as well as narrow pore distribution, offering platform to be used as advanced, ultrathin membrane for a wide variety of purification process with high efficiency. In this review chapter, the potential application of such advanced materials for gas separation and water purification process is discussed. The fabrication and modification process and innovation of such advanced two-dimensional functional structure for purification and separation process are introduced. This review chapter will offer opportunity to understand details involved in gas and/or water molecular transport through thin, laminar graphene oxide and derived structures, as well as up to now progress in the field.
Part of the book: Advances in Carbon Nanostructures