The brain is an organ that takes the central role in advanced information processing. There exist great many neurons in our brain, which build complicated neural networks. All information processing in the brain is accomplished by neural activity in the form of neural oscillations. In order to understand the mechanisms of information processing, it is necessary to clarify functions of neurons and neural networks. Although the current progress of experiment technology is remarkable, only experiments by themselves cannot uncover the behavior of only a single neuron. Computational neuroscience is a research field, which fills up the deficiency in experiments. By modeling the essential features of a neuron or a neural network, we can analyze their fundamental properties by computer simulation. In this chapter, one aspect of computational neuroscience is described. At the first, the cell membrane and a neuron can be modeled by using an RC circuit. Next, the Hodgkin-Huxley model is introduced, which has the function of generation of action potentials. Furthermore, many neurons show the subthreshold resonance phenomena, and the cell membrane is necessary to be modeled by an RLC circuit. Finally, some simulation results are shown, and properties of such neuronal behaviors are discussed.
Part of the book: Numerical Simulation
Meniscus plays fundamental roles in the knee mechanisms and functions. It acts as a shock absorber where it enables even distribution of forces, and also lubricates knee joints. Meniscal injuries could result to the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis if proper treatments are delayed. To date, treatment of meniscal injuries are more towards conservative methods and surgical approach commonly known as meniscectomy. Attempts to develop scaffolds for meniscus implants from synthetic and biological sources have been done in the recent years. This approach involves a multidisciplinary study known as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It involves the combination of three crucial aspects; the choice of chondrogenic/stem cells, bioscaffolds and favourable environmental factors such as growth factors. This chapter discusses and highlights on the currently available meniscal scaffolds that have been explored before. Focus is also directed on the potential of decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM), prepared through sonication treatment that produced scaffolds which mimics natural meniscus. The evaluation of decellularized scaffolds was portrayed through recellularization using cells namely chondrocytes, fibrochondrocytes and stem cells in order to regenerate new functional tissue. In short, this chapter serves as a representation of current approaches aiming in bio-engineering the meniscal scaffolds as meniscus tissue replacement.
Part of the book: Meniscus of the Knee
A significant blood flow disruption as seen in cardiovascular diseases and disorders is related to hemodynamic dysfunction. Gender influences the arterial hemodynamic functions. Understanding of gender-related differences in blood flow and pressure is crucial in the prevalence and burden of cardiovascular disease. This chapter presents about characteristic profile of carotid flow velocities to extend the fundamental understanding of arterial hemodynamic functions in gender differences. Comparison of both synchronized carotid blood flow velocity and blood pressures at normodynamics state are introduced to contribute to targeted therapeutic goal based on gender. Gender-related differences in body size has influenced on arterial hemodynamics in carotid artery. Body height has influenced on systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, wave reflection, pulse wave velocity in carotid artery. Carotid blood flow velocities are largely accounted for not only body height but also body weight. The predictors for modulating blood flow velocities were not only limited to age, but also influenced by several body compositions that largely accounted for the gender-related differences including visceral fat, muscle mass and total body fat. These data may useful to effective prevention and management of cardiovascular disease by considering the gender-difference.
Part of the book: Carotid Artery