Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) pathophysiologic findings include loss of multifocal and focal nerve fibers secondary to axonal degeneration and segmental demyelization due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chronic hyperglycaemia.
Part of the book: Free Radicals and Diseases
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and multifactorial disease strongly linked to a low-grade inflammatory process. Thus far, type 2 DM is generally regarded as an incurable disease by common therapies. However, very low-calorie diet (VLCD) regimens have demonstrated beneficial and rapid effects on glucose metabolism in subjects with type 2 DM. These beneficial effects include improvement of diabetes complications, insulin sensitivity and reduction in glycaemia, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and triglyceride levels. VLCD regimens commonly comprise no more than 800 kcal/day and are therefore associated with rapid weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. This group of diets positively affects local/systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) by modulating inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and endogenous antioxidant levels. The investigation of VLCDs in the field of type 2 DM treatment is progressively augmenting due to the multiple benefits in cardiometabolic health of overweight/obese subjects with type 2 DM. Here, we gather and review the evidence regarding the role of inflammation and OS in individuals with type 2 DM under VLCD regimens.
Part of the book: Diabetes and Its Complications