Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) pathophysiologic findings include loss of multifocal and focal nerve fibers secondary to axonal degeneration and segmental demyelization due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chronic hyperglycaemia.
Part of the book: Free Radicals and Diseases
The prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased globally to 10% due to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and stroke. When chronic kidney disease (CKD) maintenance therapy fails, patients require renal replacement therapy (RRT) to survive, such as peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis, and renal transplantation. The most common therapy in Mexico is PD because it is a feasible, low-cost, and easy-to-perform procedure; however, fluid overload is a frequent condition in patients with this RRT modality. The usual adverse comorbidities in patients with PD are cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated to atherosclerosis, uremia, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Fluid overload is intimately associated to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and worsening of kidney failure, leading to increased hospital admissions, higher cardiovascular mortality, and reduced life expectancy. Two main pathologies are involved in the deterioration of both heart and kidney functions, namely, cardiorenal syndrome and uremic cardiomyopathy. Along with these phenomena, patients in PD with rapid peritoneal transport have reduced ultrafiltration, increased glucose absorption, and albumin loss in the dialysate, which lead to overhydration, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and malnutrition. This review focuses on the clinical, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms involved in fluid overload of patients with CKD undergoing PD.
Part of the book: Chronic Kidney Disease
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and multifactorial disease strongly linked to a low-grade inflammatory process. Thus far, type 2 DM is generally regarded as an incurable disease by common therapies. However, very low-calorie diet (VLCD) regimens have demonstrated beneficial and rapid effects on glucose metabolism in subjects with type 2 DM. These beneficial effects include improvement of diabetes complications, insulin sensitivity and reduction in glycaemia, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and triglyceride levels. VLCD regimens commonly comprise no more than 800 kcal/day and are therefore associated with rapid weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. This group of diets positively affects local/systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) by modulating inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and endogenous antioxidant levels. The investigation of VLCDs in the field of type 2 DM treatment is progressively augmenting due to the multiple benefits in cardiometabolic health of overweight/obese subjects with type 2 DM. Here, we gather and review the evidence regarding the role of inflammation and OS in individuals with type 2 DM under VLCD regimens.
Part of the book: Diabetes and Its Complications