Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) could cause severe diseases and, as the consequence, serious economic losses as well as a risk for potential transmission to humans. Therefore, the detection of viruses and their fragments or specific DNA sequences becomes an important approach in molecular diagnosis. Here, we present electrochemical genosensors devoted for detection of influenza virus H5N1 gene sequence. We focus our attention on ion-channel mechanism, E-DNA sensors, and genosensors based on redox-active layer. The novel dual DNA electrochemical sensor with “signal-off” and “signal-on” architecture for simultaneous detection of two different sequences of DNA derived from avian influenza virus type H5N1 by means of one electrode is presented. Immunosensors are also adequate analytical devices for detection of pathogens since antibodies are natural receptors responsible for binding of antigens. Thus, the binding selectivity and efficiency are naturally high. The immunosensors presented could be divided into two main groups: ion-channel mimetic and based on redox-active monolayer.
Part of the book: Steps Forwards in Diagnosing and Controlling Influenza