Research focus: The role of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the management of acute kidney injury (AKI) is not well defined, although it remains frequently used, especially in low-resource settings. A review was performed to ascertain its suitability as the “first choice” in AKI patient treatment and to compare PD with extracorporeal blood purification (EBP), such as hemodialysis (HD). Research methods used: Design, setting, participants, and measurements of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. The review selected eligible adult population studies on PD in the setting of AKI. Results/findings of the research: This paper suggests that PD should be considered as a valuable method for AKI since it offers several advantages over HD, such as technical simplicity, no extracorporeal circuit, and no bleeding risk. It offers good cardiovascular tolerance and less cardiovascular instability, thus reducing kidney aggression by ischemia and hydroelectrolytic imbalance. Main conclusions and recommendations: Finally, not only in developing countries but also in developed countries, PD is relatively simple and inexpensive and is more widely used. Various techniques of PD have been developed, and these have been adapted for use in AKI. There is currently no evidence to suggest significant differences in mortality between PD and HD in AKI. There is a need for further good-quality evidence in this important area.
Part of the book: Some Special Problems in Peritoneal Dialysis