Malaria still remains one of the highest childhood killer diseases, especially in the developing countries of Africa, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Mediterranean regions. With an estimated 100 million cases and 300,000 deaths from malaria annually, Nigeria has one of the highest burdens of malaria in the world, with children mostly affected. It accounts for 60% of outpatient visits, 30% hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Great efforts and huge funding have been committed globally towards the fight for malaria, but malaria continues to be a major challenge in these developing countries, especially countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organisation adopted a cost-effective intervention strategy, which comprises a three-pronged approach: vector control, chemoprophylaxis, and case management. Case management involves early diagnosis and treatment. This chapter looks at the challenges militating against the achievement of this important aspect of malaria control in children as well as efforts that have been made or not made to overcome these challenges using Nigeria as a case study.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Malaria