Anesthetic management of neonatal surgical emergencies presents serious difficulties and challenges for the anesthesiologist and is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, in these patients, anesthetic assessment should be directed to the patient's current disease and associated anomalies. The provision of safe anesthesia and perioperative management of these cases also depends on a clear understanding of the physiologic and hemodynamic variables of the preterm and term infants and a precise knowledge of the pathophysiology of disease states likely to affect the neonate. This chapter describes physiology and pathophysiology‐based view on the neonatal abdominal emergency surgeries. General principles of surgery and anesthetic management of specific neonatal emergencies that include congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), abdominal wall defects, necrotizing enterocolitis, and esophageal atresia are reviewed and discussed.
Part of the book: Actual Problems of Emergency Abdominal Surgery
The first paediatric cases involving the use of spinal anaesthesia were published at the end of the nineteenth century. However, the technique did not receive much interest in paediatric anaesthesia until the 1980s. In the last three decades, paediatric spinal anaesthesia has received widespread approval as an alternative technique to general anaesthesia in school-/preschool-aged children, particularly in term and preterm neonates with high risk associated with general anaesthesia. The development of new and safer local anaesthetics mainly through better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and dynamics and dedicated paediatric tools are the keys to this success. Paediatric spinal anaesthesia is an easy and effective technique, and its high efficiency and safety are supported by the presence of numerous publications from the medical literature. However, it remains limited to situations in which general anaesthesia poses a major risk. Despite these advances, it is important to understand the correct technique and the anatomy of children at different ages. Also, the appropriate equipment, the pharmacokinetics and toxicities of local anaesthetics and the indications and complications of paediatric regional blocks should be well known. The goal of this chapter is to review and discuss some of these topics of paediatric spinal anaesthesia for paediatric surgery.
Part of the book: Pediatric and Neonatal Surgery
In recent years, developments in obstetrics and neonatology have significantly improved the survival and quality life time of neonates. Therefore, anesthesiologists are more confronted with these patients due to surgical and non-surgical procedures. For a safe anesthetic approach and safe care, anesthesiologist must have necessary knowledge and equipment on the physiology of the newborn and should be better understand how immature organs respond to surgery and anesthetic. The purpose of this section is to present spot information that will allow clinicians and anesthesiologists to better understand the problems of neonatal patients and to perform safe care for these patients in the light of the physiologic characteristics of neonates. General principles of anesthetic management of neonatal patients are also reviewed and discussed.
Part of the book: Selected Topics in Neonatal Care