Research focus: The role of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the management of acute kidney injury (AKI) is not well defined, although it remains frequently used, especially in low-resource settings. A review was performed to ascertain its suitability as the “first choice” in AKI patient treatment and to compare PD with extracorporeal blood purification (EBP), such as hemodialysis (HD). Research methods used: Design, setting, participants, and measurements of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. The review selected eligible adult population studies on PD in the setting of AKI. Results/findings of the research: This paper suggests that PD should be considered as a valuable method for AKI since it offers several advantages over HD, such as technical simplicity, no extracorporeal circuit, and no bleeding risk. It offers good cardiovascular tolerance and less cardiovascular instability, thus reducing kidney aggression by ischemia and hydroelectrolytic imbalance. Main conclusions and recommendations: Finally, not only in developing countries but also in developed countries, PD is relatively simple and inexpensive and is more widely used. Various techniques of PD have been developed, and these have been adapted for use in AKI. There is currently no evidence to suggest significant differences in mortality between PD and HD in AKI. There is a need for further good-quality evidence in this important area.
Part of the book: Some Special Problems in Peritoneal Dialysis
As many as 40–50% of all patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) die from reasons related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The severity of the illness is directly connected to higher mortality caused by cardiovascular factors, with the cause of the CKD not as significant for the relationship. This risk of high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is actually so high that it surpasses the risk of the patients reaching end-stage renal disease. Within the context of CKD, CVD has certain distinct characteristics. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is commonly used as a predictor of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The striking cardiac interstitial fibrosis, a crucial part of uremic cardiomyopathy, and nonobstructive vascular diseases are highly prevalent CV pathology in CKD patients. Traditional risk factors appear to be of less importance in the CKD population compared to the general population but have been hypothesized as uremic toxins as a risk factor of cardiorenal syndrome. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of renal function in the pathophysiology of heart failure. We also elaborate on the novel understanding of chronic kidney disease and its role in cardiovascular disease progression.
Part of the book: Chronic Kidney Disease