The modern research on molecular basis of prostate cancer (PCa) development includes studies aiming to identify potential genetic markers which could be used in diagnostics and/or monitoring of PCa. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified over 75 variants associated with PCa risk. One of the major PCa-related regions identified through GWASs is found to be a segment of 8q24. Other important PCa-susceptibility regions are 17q12, 17q24, 10q11, and 19q13. Candidate-gene based approach has also provided evidence of association between PCa risk and genetic variants located in functionally significant genes (both protein-coding and noncoding RNA genes) involved in normal prostatic cell growth, malignant transformation, or in the development of metastases. Nevertheless, the success of these studies is questionable, since numerous candidates for PCa-susceptibility variants were identified, but these results failed to replicate. The main aim of both types of genetic association studies on PCa is the identification of potential PCa genetic markers which could be used for constructing reliable algorithms for evaluating the risk for PCa development and/or PCa progression.
Part of the book: Prostate Cancer