The use of the Raman technique is nowadays being widely spread in many scientific and industrial disciplines. The rise of this spectroscopy is due to the technology developed in some of its main components (the laser, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors, gratings, filters, etc.), what reduces the cost of the equipment. Characterization by Raman spectroscopy has long and well-established tradition in fields such as condensed matter physics and chemistry. In nuclear sciences, by contrast, it is far from being extensively applied, even though this technique can be especially useful. It is a fact that only a scarce number of Raman laboratories dealing with nuclear materials exist, and therefore a limited database related to these materials. In such a context, this chapter is devoted to the practical use of Raman spectroscopy for nuclear materials characterization.