Synthesis routes to nanostructured titanium dioxides (spherical nanoparticles, nanotubes, mesostructure) have been studied. Their potential applications in various fields based on coating technology have been explored, i.e., dye-sensitized solar cells (using ruthenium sensitizer and some results of natural dyes), photocatalysts for self-cleaning films (TiO2 on textiles), antibacterial coating for multifunctional textiles (TiO2-SiO2 on cotton), and recent result on antifouling coating on wood. The synthesis/preparation procedures were developed to obtain green protocols based on combined techniques of hydro- or solvo-thermal (templated, seeded, deposition), sol–gel (templated, room temperature, dip coating), and solvent-casting techniques. Discussion on the properties and synthesis mechanism is presented. It will be shown that sonication has important role to shorten the preparation of nanotube titania and has been proposed as one green synthesis route. The changing of morphology of titanium dioxide has presented unexpected results to the shifting of photoactivity into visible irradiation.
Part of the book: Titanium Dioxide