Graphene against Other Two‐Dimensional Materials: A Comparative Study on the Basis of Electronic Applications
The evolution of the electronics industry since almost 75 years ago has depended on the novel materials and devices that continuously are introduced. In first decades of this century, 2D materials are impelling this development through materials such as graphene, graphane, graphone, graphyne, graphdiyne, silicene, silicane, germanene, germanane, stanene, phosphorene, arsenene, antimonene, borophene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and MXenes. In this work, the main strategies to modify electrical properties of 2D materials are studied for obtaining dielectric, semiconducting, or semimetallic properties. The effects of doping, chemical modification, electrical field, or compressive and/or tensile strains are considered. In addition, the light‐matter interaction to develop optoelectronic applications is analyzed. In next three decades, a lot of scientific research will be realized to completely exploit the use of 2D materials either as single monolayers or as stacked multilayers in several fields of knowledge with a special emphasis on the benefit to the electronic industry and ultimately our society.
Part of the book: Two-dimensional Materials
State-of-the-Art Electronic Devices Based on Graphene
Graphene can be considered as the material used for electronic devices of this century, due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, which have been studied and implemented from a theoretical basis and have allowed the development of unique and innovative applications. The need for an ongoing study of the state-of-the-art electronic devices is ultimately useful for the progress achieved so far and future project applications. To date, graphene has been used individually in composite, hybrid materials or functional materials. In this chapter, an overview of their applications in nanoelectronics, particularly with an emphasis directed to flexible electronics, is presented. The description of the advantages and properties of graphene at a level of materials science and engineering is presented, in order to spread its enormous potential. In addition, the future prospects of these applications arising from the developments made currently in the laboratory phase are examined.
Part of the book: Nanoelectronics and Materials Development
Graphene against Other Two-Dimensional Materials: A Comparative Study on the Basis of Photonic Applications
Two‐dimensional materials represent the basis of technological development to produce applications with high added value for nanoelectronics, photonics, and optoelectronics. In first decades of this century, these materials are impelling this development through materials based on carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and boron. 2D materials for photonic applications used until now are graphene, silicene, germanene, stanene, phosphorene, arsenene, antimonene, and borophene. In this work, the main strategies to modify optical properties of 2D materials are studied for achieving photodetection, transportation, and emitting of light. Optical properties analyzed here are refractive index, extinction coefficient, relative permittivity, absorption coefficient, chromatic dispersion, group index, and transmittance. The transmittance spectra of various two-dimensional materials are presented here with the aim of classifying them from photonic point‐of‐view. A performance comparison between graphene and other two‐dimensional materials is done to help the designer choose the best design material for photonic applications. In next three decades, a lot of scientific research will be realized to completely exploit the use of 2D materials either as single monolayers or as stacked multilayers in several fields of knowledge with a special emphasis in the optoelectronics and photonic industry in benefit of the industry and ultimately to our society.
Part of the book: Graphene Materials
Clinical Relevance of Medicinal Plants and Foods of Vegetal Origin on the Activity of Cytochrome P450
Drug metabolism is a pharmacokinetic process whose main objective is to modify the chemical structure of drugs to easily excretable compounds. This process is carried out through phase I and phase II reactions. The enzymes of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) participate in phase I reactions, and their activity can be inhibited or induced by xenobiotics. The aim of this chapter is to study the clinical relevance of the induction and inhibition of CYP450, by describing the effect that some bioactive compounds present in medicinal plants or foods can modify, either increasing or decreasing the activity of CYP450 enzymes and with it modify the bioavailability and depuration of drugs. Examples will be described on the interaction of medicinal plants and foods of vegetal origin that when combined with some drugs can generate toxicity or therapeutic failure; this will allow gathering relevant information on the adequate pharmacological management in different clinical situations.
Part of the book: Medicinal Chemistry
Anodic ZnO-Graphene Composite Materials in Lithium BatteriesView all chapters
An important area to cope with in the implementation of technologies for the generation of energy from renewable sources is storage, so it is a priority to develop new ways of storing energy with high efficiency and storage capacity. Experimental reports focused on ZnO-graphene composite materials applied to the anode design which indicated that they show low efficiencies of around 50 %, but values very close to the theoretical capacity have already been reported in recent years. The low efficiency of the materials for the anode design of the Li-ion battery is mainly attributed to the pulverization and fragmentation of the material or materials, caused by the volumetric changes and stability problems during the charge/discharge cycles. In this chapter, we will discuss the development of composite materials such as ZnO-graphene in its application for the design of the anode in the Li-ion battery.
Part of the book: Zinc Oxide Based Nano Materials and Devices