Thyroid cancers are malignant tumors in the thyroid gland. DNA polymorphisms are playing a decisive role in unscrambling the genomic basis of tumor formation and development in cancer. Thyroid cancer is influenced in a polygenic and low-penetrance manner by RET gene polymorphisms and this part of the world (North India) has not recorded any study regarding RET alterations in this very cancer. We assessed RET G691S (rs1799939), L769L (rs1800861) and S904S (rs1800863) polymorphisms by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in order to explain their potential role in the diagnosis and prognosis of Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). In RET G691S polymorphism, the total dissemination of variant alleles (GA + AA) was 62.9% in cases as related to 44.5% in controls (P < 0.05). RET L769L variant alleles (TG + GG) was 70% in cases versus 88% in controls (P < 0.05). In RET S904S, occurrence of variant alleles (CG + GG) was 56% in cases versus 44% in controls (P < 0.05). G691S and L769L polymorphism advocate a “Dominant mode of inheritance”. The S904S polymorphism approves an “Additive mode of inheritance”. In conclusion, there was an over-representation of RET G691S/S904S polymorphisms and under-representation of L769L polymorphism in PTC and FTC patients. Additionally, our data suggest that some haplotypes (A T G, G T G and A T C) of RET may act as low penetrance alleles for predisposition of thyroid cancer.
Part of the book: Knowledges on Thyroid Cancer