The conventional silage uses crops such as corn, sorghum or other forages for this specific objective. The nonconventional silages use by-products, co-products and other materials obtained during the harvest or during the processing in the industry of sugarcane, juice extraction of citrus, pineapple, cassava, pumpkin and others. These products are available in high amounts during a short period of time. These by-products can be ensiled to maintain their nutritive value during longer period in the year and then used as feed for animals. These by-products have adequate characteristics for ensiling, i.e., moisture content and fermentable carbohydrates. Forages reduce their crude protein (CP) concentration in a period of the year (dry season or in winter), which may limit animal production. Most by-products used for silage have low CP concentration; some additives may help increase the nutritive value of these silages. These by-products (sugarcane, juice extraction of citrus, pineapple, cassava, pumpkin and others) can be mixed and ensiled with other by-products as poultry excreta or forage rich in protein to obtain silage with greater CP concentration. The research shows the feasibility of obtaining good quality silages from sugarcane tops, by-products of citrus, cassava and pumpkin; the particularities of each are discussed in detail in this chapter.
Part of the book: Advances in Silage Production and Utilization
There is considerable interest in the use of microbial additives such as yeasts in the nutrition of ruminants. The prohibition of the antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds increased the interest to investigate the effects of yeasts as natural additives on the gastrointestinal ecosystem and animal productive behavior. The effect of yeast-based preparations on the rumen environment and on the growth performance of ruminants has been well documented and has generated considerable scientific attention in the last two decades. However, the precise action modes by which the yeast cultures improve nutrient utilization and livestock production are still under study. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to deepen into the action mechanisms of the yeasts at the ruminal level and at the productive level for their use as additives in animal feeding.
Part of the book: Yeasts in Biotechnology