Princeton UniversityUnited States of America
Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) typically operates under high vacuum conditions. However, in situ investigation under real-world conditions other than vacuum, such as gaseous or liquidus environment, is essential to obtain practical information for materials including catalysts, fuel cells, biological molecules, lithium ion batteries, etc. Therefore, the ability to study gas/liquid–solid interactions with atomic resolution under ambient conditions in TEM promises new insights into the growth, properties, and functionality of nanomaterials. Different platforms have been developed for in situ TEM observations in ambient environment and can be classified into two categories: open-cell configuration and sealed gas/liquid cell configuration. The sealed cell technique has various advantages over the open-cell approach. This chapter serves as a review of windowed gas/liquid cells for in situ TEM observations.
Part of the book: Microscopy and Analysis
In this paper, the fabrication and electrical property characterization of epitaxial Cu3Ge thin film are performed. By adjusting deposition parameters, the crystallinity of the as‐grown Cu3Ge thin films is improved, with the formation of twins within it. The average work function of epitaxial Cu3Ge thin film is measured to be ∼4.47 + 0.02 eV, rendering it a desirable mid‐gap gate metal for applications in complementary metal‐oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. The present study therefore shows an epitaxial Cu3Ge thin film that is promising for applications.
Part of the book: Nanoelectronics and Materials Development