Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has emerged as an invaluable tool for bridging severe isolated or combined failure of lung and heart. Due to massive technical improvements, the application of ECMO is growing fast. While historically ECMO was initiated and maintained by cardiac surgeons, in recent times interventional cardiologists and intensive care specialists increasingly run ECMO systems independently with great success. Percutaneous ECMO circuits are usually set up in a dual cannulation mode, either as veno-venous or as veno-arterial configuration. A novel advanced strategy is the cannulation of three large vessels (triple cannulation), resulting in veno-veno-arterial or veno-arterio-venous cannulation. Both veno-venous and veno-arterio-venous cannulation may further be upgraded to veno-pulmonary-arterial or veno-arterial-pulmonary arterial cannulation, respectively. Triple cannulation expands the field of ECMO application but substantially increases the complexity of ECMO circuits. In this chapter, we review percutaneous dual and triple cannulation strategies, featuring a recently proposed unifying nomenclature. This unequivocal code universally applies to both dual and triple cannulation strategies (VV, VPa, VA, VVA, VAV, VAPa). The technical evolution of ECMO is growing fast, but it has to be noted that current knowledge of ECMO support is mainly based on observation. Thus controlled trials are urgently needed to prospectively evaluate different ECMO modes.
Part of the book: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Affecting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidney, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) were originally developed as antihypertensive drugs. After several large clinical trials, the concept of MR blockade has nowadays become a main treatment paradigm in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and for patients after myocardial infarction (MI) with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recent analyses also point to a beneficial effect of early MRA treatment in patients with acute MI without LV dysfunction, however, there is no clear evidence yet. Although promising data from preclinical settings suggest that MRAs mediate favorable anti-atherogenic effects, clinical studies in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been able to detect differences of hard clinical outcomes. The concept might still be pursued using the most recent MRA, like the non-steroidal MR antagonist finerenone, and larger clinical trials need to be performed. Here, we review the current impact of MRA in patients with CAD and focus on the conflicting evidence of preclinical and clinical data in patients with stable CAD and preserved ejection fraction and summarize the current indications for MRA in these patients according to the guidelines.
Part of the book: Aldosterone-Mineralocorticoid Receptor