Extracranial and intracranial large artery atherosclerosis is often identified as a potential etiologic cause for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Given the high prevalence of large artery atherosclerosis in the general population, optimally treating each patient to minimize future stroke risk is paramount. To optimally define treatment, as based upon the individual patient’s history, examination, and anatomical imaging findings, clinicians can compartmentalize this disease entity into four distinct clinical scenarios: 1(a) asymptomatic and 1(b) symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis, (2) intracranial atherosclerosis, and (3) atherosclerotic vertebrobasilar disease. In this chapter, we work to provide a framework for clinicians evaluating and treating such patients.
Part of the book: Ischemic Stroke
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a less common cause of stroke that is an often under recognized entity in clinical practice. The goal of this chapter will be to provide clinicians with the knowledge to succinctly recognize the various presentations of CVT, emphasizing rapid diagnosis and the potential treatments necessary to produce optimal clinical outcomes. Detailed descriptions of the relevant anatomy and associated clinical syndromes will be discussed. Detailed sections regarding CVT epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment will be provided. Prognosis and long-term follow-up will also be discussed. Relevant literature will be cited and clinical trials across the spectrum of CVT will be highlighted.
Part of the book: Ischemic Stroke of Brain