Maxillary deficiency in growing patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion can be treated by either extraoral or intraoral appliances. Extraoral appliances include face mask, reverse chin cup, reverse headgear, and protraction headgear. Intraoral appliances include tongue appliance, fixed tongue appliance, tongue plate, Frankel III, miniplate in combination with Class III elastics, and miniscrew in combination with Class III elastics. Herein, we demonstrate our experience and treatment results in these patients.
Part of the book: A Textbook of Advanced Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery