Amyloidoses represent a highly heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the abnormal production and accumulation of abnormal, insoluble amyloid proteins in various tissues leading to organ dysfunction. Light‐chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis and is characterized by extracellular deposition of pathologic insoluble fibrillar proteins in organs and tissues. Primary systemic AL amyloidosis (AL) arises from the production of abnormal immunoglobulins (Igs) by clonal plasma cells, such as those associated with the plasma cell dyscrasia multiple myeloma (MM). AL amyloidosis can affect a wide range of organs, most commonly the kidneys, and consequently presents with a range of symptoms. Currently, the most effective treatment is autologous bone marrow transplants with stem cell rescue, but many patients are too weak to tolerate this approach and are ineligible. Novel therapeutic strategies recently used include forms of chemotherapy and targeted therapy similar to those used to treat MM. As a single agent, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has notable activity in selected populations of patients with relapsed AL. Here, we discuss recent advances using proteasome inhibitors to improve the outcome of AL amyloidosis patients.
Part of the book: Exploring New Findings on Amyloidosis