Currently, there are several tissue engineering strategies meant to overcome the incomplete or insufficient bone regeneration conditions offered by autologous bone graft or surgery approaches. In the last decade, attention has been focused toward finding the equilibrium between a suitable scaffold with osteoinductive properties, a cell source with evident potential to develop bone tissue and the appropriate pro-osteogenic factors to condition the differentiation process after cell-scaffold implantation. Consequently, this chapter aims to discuss the benefits that graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO), bring both to the scaffold biomaterial and to the interaction between the material and the cellular component in order to create a favorable micro-environment for efficient osteogenic differentiation process. Several advantages of including GO in the composition of the materials are shown in relation to cell viability, proliferation, attachment, and osteogenic differentiation.
Part of the book: Advanced Techniques in Bone Regeneration
In this overview we describe the main plant-derived bioactive compounds used in cancer therapy which has the cell cytoskeleton as therapeutic target. Three major classes of these compounds are described: antimitotics with microtubule-destabilizing and—stabilizing effects, plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments/actin, and plant-bioactive compounds that interact with intermediate filaments like keratins and vimentin. We also focus on the molecular aspects of interactions with their cellular targets: microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. Some critical aspects of cardiac side effects of cancer chemotherapy are also discussed, focusing on cardiac cytoskeleton and protective effect of plant-derived compounds. The application of plant bioactives in the treatment of cancer has resulted in increased therapeutic efficacy through targeting the cytoskeleton, respectively, prevention of the injury of cytoskeletal components elicited by chemotherapeutics.
Part of the book: Cytoskeleton
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) currently represent a viable source of mesenchymal-like stem cells, with similar properties and differentiation potential to bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) but with a different and more accessible source—the adipose tissue. hASCs are able to produce almost all of the factors that contribute to normal wound healing, and therefore, they are preferred for all types of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medical applications. This chapter will review hASCs regeneration potential and the most modern approaches in TE for bone, cartilage and adipose tissue regeneration using hASCs. Furthermore, an overview of novel and original hASCs-scaffold constructs studied in our group completes an up-to-date presentation of hASCs multiple uses. Additionally, this chapter will highlight the relevance of ultimate advances in regenerative medicine and the need for this evolution to increase the quality of life in patients with tissue defects.
Part of the book: Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering