Grain legumes are considered major sources of dietary proteins, calories, certain minerals and vitamins, and they are the most widely cultivated and consumed crops worldwide. Among them are the common beans, whose major production volumes came from landraces cultivated in traditional farming systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of a set of common bean landraces from Mexico based on the agromorphological traits and nutritional composition of the grain in the context of traditional farming systems. Different field and laboratory data were collected and complemented with secondary information published in refereed journals and research reports. The results showed that there are significant differences in the morphological and physiological traits of the plant, pod and grain among groups of common bean landraces of different geographic origins, which were associated with different indigenous groups. Similar patterns were observed in the contents of anthocyanins, polyphenols, flavoinds and minerals as well as antioxidant activity. In the evaluated population groups in each region, there are outstanding populations in terms of agromorphological traits and the nutritional value of the grain that can enable a participatory breeding initiative guided by regional objectives. Some populations from Sierra Norte, Oaxaca, presented higher values in Zn and Fe, and populations from Estado de Mexico exhibited high polyphenol and flavonoid values but stable agronomic behaviour.
Part of the book: Grain Legumes
There is insufficient evidence to identify the precise health effects of chili pepper consumption. However, there is evidence of their topical use as an analgesic to decrease pain from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, neuralgias, neuropathic diabetes, neuronal dysfunctions and inflammation, among others. In this work, the diversity and variety of consumed forms of chilis in Mexico, flavonoid and capsaicinoid content in fruits, and their potential health uses are documented, based on various research results and bibliographic information. In Mexico, more than 150 landraces of wild and cultivated origins are consumed and preserved and are distributed throughout the country; the greatest diversity is concentrated in the central and south-southeastern regions. Consumption per capita in urban households is from 8 to 9 kg, and in rural communities, it varies from 14 to 17 kg. Chili peppers contain up to 23 flavonoids and 20 capsaicinoids, differing among landraces because of crop management, maturation of fruits, postharvest management and ecological-environmental influences. Flavonoids and capsaicinoids confer antioxidant, anticarcinogenic properties on the fruit and have lipolytic and preventative effects on chronic degenerative diseases. However, in vitro and in vivo experimental trials of capsaicinoids and flavonoids with beneficial effects must be conducted with regard to human health.
Part of the book: Flavonoids
In Mexico, high incidences of Fusarium affect common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production, reducing grain yields due to seedling death and crop standing reductions. Production of resistant germplasm could be an appropriate strategy for grain yield increasing. Bean breeding programs need the former analysis of plant-pathogen pathosystem to perform the selection of segregating populations with improved resistance to root rot pathogens and the best agroecosystem adaptation. Here, we report our results on characterization of genetic variability patterns of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (FSP) from Aguascalientes, México; the analysis of P. vulgaris germplasm reactions to highly and naturally FSP-infested field and controlled conditions; and the identification of genetic basis of resistance to FSP root rot in segregating common bean populations. Significant genetic variability in FSP isolates from Aguascalientes and other regions of México was found. Also, we found high variation on reactions to FSP root rots, resistance was more frequent on black seed-coated beans, and susceptibility was common in pinto beans. Resistance to FSP in BAT 477 seedlings was associated with one quantitative trait loci (QTL).
Part of the book: Fusarium