Development of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts using commercially available precursors with low cost is an essential step in the advancement of next-generation electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. In this regard, noble metal-free and graphene-supported nanocomposites are of particular interest. Graphene-based nanocomposite is an excellent candidate as energy-device and sensor-related electrode materials, largely due to their high electrical conductivity, large specific surface area, high-speed electron/heat mobility, and reasonably good mechanical strength. Among many types of graphene-based composite materials, graphene–metal oxide nanohybrids hold great promise toward engineering efficient electrocatalysts and have attracted increasing interest in both scientific communities and industrial partners around the world. The goal of this chapter is primarily set on an overview of cutting-edge developments in graphene–metal oxide nanohybrid materials, with the recently reported results from worldwide research groups. This chapter is presented first with an introduction, followed by synthetic methods and structural characterization of nanocomposites, an emphasis on their applications in energy and sensor-related fields, and finally completed with brief conclusions and outlook.
Part of the book: Advanced Catalytic Materials
Graphene paper as a new form of graphene-supported nanomaterials has received worldwide attention since its first report in 2007. Due to their high flexibility, lightweight and good electrical conductivity, graphene papers have demonstrated the promising potential for crucial applications in electrochemical sensors and energy technologies among others. In this chapter, we present some examples to overview recent advances in the research and development of two-dimensional (2D) graphene papers as new materials for electrochemical sensors. The chapter covers the design, fabrication, functionalization and application evaluations of graphene papers. We first summarize the mainstream methods for fabrication of graphene papers/membranes, with the focus on chemical vapour deposition techniques and solution-processing assembly approaches. A large portion of this chapter is then devoted to the highlights of specific functionalization of graphene papers with polymer and nanoscale functional building blocks for electrochemical-sensing purposes. In terms of electrochemical-sensing applications, the emphasis is on enzyme-graphene and nanoparticle-graphene paper-based systems for the detection of glucose. We finally conclude this chapter with brief remarks and outlook.
Part of the book: Electrochemical Sensors Technology