For the last few years, the number of immunocompromised individuals is growing fast, due to more intensive antitumor therapy, transplantations and the concomitant immunosuppressive therapy, and the HIV epidemic, as well. Immunosuppressed patients very often are affected with nosocomial infections in hospitals, and with infections in the society. The defense from viral diseases depends mainly on the immune system. When there is immune deficiency, the illness is taking severely longer and has complicated outcome. Usually immunocompromised individuals have one or more defects in the defensive mechanisms and leading cause of death is infection.The viruses taking part in this process are Epstein Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovius (CMV), Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1, HSV2), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Human Polyomaviruses (BKV, JC). Many viruses (HIV, CMV, EBV) are depressing the immune resistance and are leading to co-infections with other microbial agents. Some viruses (HSV1/2, HPV, CMV, EBV, BKV, JC) are at latent condition in the infected persons for life. They become activated when decline in the immunity occurs, leading to serious illnesses. For this reason, accurate screening and prompt and precise diagnosis can be performed to prevent exacerbation of diseases and provide appropriate treatment.
Part of the book: Immunopathology and Immunomodulation