Fact 1: Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time, developing cracks and joint defects; therefore, leakage is inevitable. Fact 2: The massive worldwide urbanization process, together with rural development, has meaningfully increased the length of sewage pipelines. Result: The concomitant risk of sewage leaks exposes the surrounding land to potential contamination and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, enabling damage control. Advances in active remote-sensing technologies (GPR and FDEM: ground-penetration radar and frequency domain electromagnetic) were used to identify sewage leaks that might cause pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage.
Part of the book: Environmental Applications of Remote Sensing