Superimposed external magnetic fields during electrodeposition process offers the possibility to tailor microstructure and properties of the obtained films in a very efficient, contactless, and easily controllable way, what is caused by so-called magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect. On the other hand, the nonequilibrium state of as-electrodeposited nanocrystalline films provides a strong thermodynamic potential for microstructural transformation. This means that the benefit effect of magneto-electrodeposition on a nanocrystalline film can be completely consumed by a thermal exposure at relatively low temperature. Magnetic field annealing has been confirmed to be useful for tailoring the microstructure of as-deposited nanocrystalline films for their widespread uses.
Part of the book: Electroplating of Nanostructures