In this chapter, we present two relevant strategies to improve the activity and selectivity of perovskite-mixed oxides ABO3 in heterogeneous catalytic reactions such as the oxidation of hydrocarbons, soot combustion and CO selective oxidation, for which the surface sites and lattice oxygen species play important roles for the chemical transformations. Besides, we focus on synthesis of higher alcohols, partial oxidation of methane, oxidative reforming of diesel and dry reforming of methane for which the perovskite is a precursor that leads to a dispersed metal active phase over an oxide matrix. But which strategies are we talking about? First, the partial substitution of cations A and B by different elements, which change atomic distances, causes unit cell distortions, stabilizes multiple oxidation states or induces cationic or anionic vacancies within the lattice. And all these new features perturb the solid reactivity by changing the reaction mechanism on the catalyst surface. Thus, appropriate cations substitutions may lead to better catalysts. The second strategy comprises supporting the perovskite, which usually presents low surface area, on high surface area materials to maximize the exposed surface sites.
Part of the book: Perovskite Materials
The search for clean and low-cost fuels as alternative for petroleum is a popular research focus in the energy field. The demand of natural gas as an energy source has increased steadily. The high H:C ratio and the absence of heteroatoms make natural gas an attractive feedstock for synthetic fuels and chemicals that can replace those that are typically petroleum-derived. The search for efficient routes to convert methane to other higher added-value products is a challenge for the scientific community. In addition, new fields of oil and gas contain associated CO2 (8–18%), and, in some specific fields, the associated gas encloses a higher CO2 content (79%). In this context, the tri-reforming process combines two of the most problematic greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) to generate syngas for the synthesis of clean liquid fuels and valuable chemicals. Developments in tri-reforming processes, which include the new catalysts, are presented in this chapter.
Part of the book: Biofuels