Development of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts using commercially available precursors with low cost is an essential step in the advancement of next-generation electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. In this regard, noble metal-free and graphene-supported nanocomposites are of particular interest. Graphene-based nanocomposite is an excellent candidate as energy-device and sensor-related electrode materials, largely due to their high electrical conductivity, large specific surface area, high-speed electron/heat mobility, and reasonably good mechanical strength. Among many types of graphene-based composite materials, graphene–metal oxide nanohybrids hold great promise toward engineering efficient electrocatalysts and have attracted increasing interest in both scientific communities and industrial partners around the world. The goal of this chapter is primarily set on an overview of cutting-edge developments in graphene–metal oxide nanohybrid materials, with the recently reported results from worldwide research groups. This chapter is presented first with an introduction, followed by synthetic methods and structural characterization of nanocomposites, an emphasis on their applications in energy and sensor-related fields, and finally completed with brief conclusions and outlook.
Part of the book: Advanced Catalytic Materials
Diverse functioning biosystems in nature have inspired us and offered unique opportunities in developing novel concepts as well as new class of materials and devices. The design of bioinspired functional materials with tailored properties for actuation, sensing, electronics, and communication has enabled synthetic devices to mimic natural behavior. Among which, artificial muscle and electronic skin that enable to sense and respond to various environmental stimuli in a human-like way have been widely recognized as a significant step toward robotics applications. Polymer materials have previously been dominant in fabricating such functional biomimetic devices owing to their soft nature. However, lacking multifunctionality, handling difficulty, and other setbacks have limited their practical applications. Recently, versatile and high-performance two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and its derivatives have been studied and proven as promising alternatives in this area. In this chapter, we highlight the recent efforts on fabrication and assembly of 2D nanomaterials into functional biomimetic systems. We discuss the structure-function relationships for the development of 2D materials–based biomimetic devices, their tailoring property features, and their variety of applications. We start with a brief introduction of artificial functional biomimetic materials and devices, then summarize some key 2D materials–based systems, including their fabrication, properties, advantages and demonstrations, and finally present concluding remarks and outlook.
Part of the book: Two-dimensional Materials
Graphene paper as a new form of graphene-supported nanomaterials has received worldwide attention since its first report in 2007. Due to their high flexibility, lightweight and good electrical conductivity, graphene papers have demonstrated the promising potential for crucial applications in electrochemical sensors and energy technologies among others. In this chapter, we present some examples to overview recent advances in the research and development of two-dimensional (2D) graphene papers as new materials for electrochemical sensors. The chapter covers the design, fabrication, functionalization and application evaluations of graphene papers. We first summarize the mainstream methods for fabrication of graphene papers/membranes, with the focus on chemical vapour deposition techniques and solution-processing assembly approaches. A large portion of this chapter is then devoted to the highlights of specific functionalization of graphene papers with polymer and nanoscale functional building blocks for electrochemical-sensing purposes. In terms of electrochemical-sensing applications, the emphasis is on enzyme-graphene and nanoparticle-graphene paper-based systems for the detection of glucose. We finally conclude this chapter with brief remarks and outlook.
Part of the book: Electrochemical Sensors Technology
Compared to their conventional three-dimensional (3D) counterparts, two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites have attracted more interests recently in a variety of areas related to optoelectronics because of their unique structural characteristics and enhanced performances. In general, there are two distinct types of 2D halide perovskites. One represents those perovskites with an intrinsic layered crystal structure (i.e. MX6 layers, M = metal and X = Cl, Br, I), the other defines the perovskites with a 2D nanostructured morphology such as nanoplatelets and nanosheets. Recent studies have shown that 2D halide perovskites hold promising potential for the development of new-generation photodetectors, mainly arising from their highly efficient photoluminescence and absorbance, color tunability in the visible-light range and relatively high stability. In this chapter, we present the summary and highlights of latest researches on these two types of 2D halide perovskites for developing photodetectors, with an emphasis on synthesis methods, structural characterization, optoelectronic properties, and theoretical analysis and simulations. We also discuss the current challenging issues and future perspective. We hope this chapter would add new elements for understanding halide perovskite-based 2D materials and for developing their more efficient optoelectronic devices.
Part of the book: Two-dimensional Materials for Photodetector