Intracellular bacterial pathogens are hard to treat because of the inability of conventional antimicrobial agents belonging to widely used classes, like aminoglycosides and β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, or macrolides to penetrate, accumulate, or be retained in the mammalian cells. The increasing problem of antibiotic resistance complicates more the treatment of the diseases caused by these agents. In many cases, the increase in therapeutic doses and treatment duration is accompanied by the occurrence of severe side effects. Taking into account the huge financial investment associated with bringing a new antibiotic to the market and the limited lifetime of antibiotics, the design of drug delivery systems to enable the targeting of antibiotics inside the cells, to improve their activity in different intracellular niches at different pH and oxygen concentrations, and to achieve a reduced dosage and frequency of administration could represent a prudent choice. An ideal drug delivery system should possess several properties, such as antimicrobial activity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, making it suitable for use in biomedical and pharmaceutical formulations. This approach will allow reviving old antibiotics rendered useless by resistance or toxicity, rescuing the last line therapy antibiotics by increasing the therapeutic index, widening the antimicrobial spectrum of antibiotics scaffolds that failed due to membrane permeability problems, and thus reducing the gap between increasingly drug-resistant pathogens and the development of new antibiotics. Different improved drug carriers have been developed for treating intracellular pathogens, including antibiotics loaded into liposomes, microspheres, polymeric carriers, and nanoplexes. The purpose of this chapter is to present the limitations of each class of antibiotics in targeting intracellular pathogens and the main research directions for the development of drug delivery systems for the intracellular release of antibiotics.
Part of the book: Smart Drug Delivery System
Many plants or plant-derived compounds with high levels of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial properties could be of great benefit for wound healing. Several studies have documented the use of plant extracts for the development of bioactive wound dressings. The purpose of this chapter is to give an update about the vegetal and bee products, which can be used as bioactive substances in wound dressings or in other formulations for wound healing. The adverse effects of plant and bee extracts, such as contact allergies, are also presented. In order to better exploit the huge reservoir of pharmacologically active plant-derived compounds and extracts, standardized methodology and clinical trials are necessary to give more concrete evidence supporting the use of traditional medicine in wound management.
Part of the book: Worldwide Wound Healing
Oral cavity represents an ideal environment for the microbial cell growth, persistence, and dental plaque establishment. The presence of different microniches leads to the occurrence of different biofilm communities, formed on teeth surface, above gingival crevice or at subgingival level, on tongue, mucosa and dental prosthetics too. The healthy state is regulated by host immune system and interactions between microbial community members, maintaining the predominance of “good” microorganisms. When the complexity and volume of biofilms from the gingival crevice increase, chronic pathological conditions such as gingivitis and periodontitis can occur, predisposing to a wide range of complications. Bacteria growing in biofilms exhibit a different behavior compared with their counterpart, respectively planktonic or free cells. There have been described numerous mechanisms of differences in antibiotic susceptibility of biofilm embedded cells. Resistance to antibiotics, mediated by genetic factors or, phenotypical, due to biofilm formation, called also tolerance, is the most important cause of therapy failure of biofilm-associated infections, including periodontitis; the mechanisms of tolerance are different, the metabolic low rate and cell’s dormancy being the major ones. The recent progress in science and technology has made possible a wide range of novel approaches and advanced therapies, aiming the efficient management of periodontal disease.
Part of the book: Periodontitis