In the electronic packaging industries, soldering materials are essential in joining various microelectronic networks. Solders assure the reliability of joints and protect the microelectronic packaging devices. They provide electrical, thermal, and mechanical continuity among various interconnections in an electronic device. The service performance of all the electronic appliances depends on high strength and durable soldering materials. Lead-containing solders are in use for years, resulting in an extensive database for the reliability of these materials. However, due to toxicity and legislations, lead-free solders are now being developed. As tin (Sn) is the major component of solders, this chapter presents the detailed results and discussion about the metallurgical overview of Sn, synthesis, and characterization of pulse electrodeposited pure tin finish from different aqueous solution baths. The experiments on pulse electrodeposition such as common tin plating baths employed, their chemical compositions, rationale behind their selection and their characterization by bath conductivity and cathodic current efficiency, microstructures, and tin whisker growth are discussed. Further, the effect of pulse electrodeposition parameters such as current density, additive concentration, pH, duty cycle, frequency, temperature, and stirring speed on microstructural characteristics of the coating obtained from sulfate bath and their effect on grain size distribution have been presented.
Part of the book: Electroplating of Nanostructures
This chapter provides a detailed overview of the various Sn-based composites solders reinforced with ceramic nanoparticles. These solders are lead free in nature and are produced by various process like powder metallurgy, ball milling, casting as well as simple and economic pulse co-electrodeposition technique. In this chapter, various electrodeposited composite solders, their synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of various properties for microelectronic packaging applications, such as microstructure, microhardness, density and porosity, wear and friction, electrochemical corrosion, melting point, electrical resistivity, and residual stress of the monolithic Sn-based and (nano)composite solders have been presented and discussed. This chapter is divided into the following sections: such as introduction to microelectronic packaging, synthesis routes for solders and composites, various nanoreinforcement, and the mechanism of incorporation in solder matrix, the pulse co-electrodeposition technique, the various factors affecting composite deposition, and the improved properties of composite solders over monolithic solders for microelectronic packaging applications are also summarized here.
Part of the book: Electrodeposition of Composite Materials