We are conducting a multi-disciplinary research work that involves development of nanostructured thin films of semiconductors for different applications. Nanotechnology is widely considered to constitute the basis of the next technological revolution, following on from the first Industrial Revolution, which began around 1750 with the introduction of the steam engine and steelmaking. Nanotechnology is defined as the design, characterization, production, and application of materials, devices and systems by controlling shape and size of the nanoscale. The nanoscale itself is at present considered to cover the range from 1 to 100 nm. All samples prepared in thin film forms and the characterization revealed their nanostructure. The major exploitation of thin films has been in microelectronics, there are numerous and growing applications in communications, optical electronics, coatings of all kinds, and in energy generation. A great many sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques, largely developed to characterize thin films, have already become indispensable in virtually every scientific endeavor irrespective of discipline. Among all these techniques, electrodeposition is the most suitable technique for nanostructured thin films from aqueous solution served as samples under investigation. The electrodeposition of metallic layers from aqueous solution is based on the discharge of metal ions present in the electrolyte at a cathodic surface (the substrate or component.) The metal ions accept an electron from the electrically conducting material at the solid- electrolyte interface and then deposit as metal atoms onto the surface. The electrons necessary for this to occur are either supplied from an externally applied potential source or are surrendered by a reducing agent present in solution (electroless reduction). The metal ions themselves derive either from metal salts added to solution, or by the anodic dissolution of the so-called sacrificial anodes, made of the same metal that is to be deposited at the cathode.
Part of the book: Electroplating of Nanostructures