Background In 2014, the new transnasal endoscopy with Blue laser Imaging (BLI) has been developed. Aim We present the usefulness of the observation of from the pharynx to the cervical esophagus using transnasal endoscopy with BLI. Patients and Methods This study was conducted between June 2014 and October 2014. During this period, 70 consecutive patients (60 men, 10 women; mean age 67.9 years old) with esophageal or head and neck cancer underwent endoscopic screening at the oropharynx and hypopharynx by transnasal endoscopy with BLI system We performed this endoscopic observation from oral cavity to pharynx before inserting into the cervical esophagus.The visibility of subsites of the hypopharynx and the orifice of the esophagus was evaluated. The extent of the view of hypopharyngeal opening was classified into 3 categories (excellent, good, poor). Then, the diagnostic accuracy of transnasal endoscopy with BLI system was estimated. Our screening is as follows. First, the patient is asked to bow their head deeply in the left lateral position. We put a hand on the back of the patient’s head and push it forward. The patient is then asked to lift the chin as far as possible. In order to inspect the oral cavity, we insert an endoscope without a mouthpiece. After observation of the oral cavity, the endoscope was inserted through the nose. When the tip of the endoscope reached caudal to the uvula, the patient opened his mouth wide, stuck his tongue forward as much as possible and made a vocal sound like “ayyy”. The endoscopist caused the endoscope to U-turn and observed the oropharynx, in particular the radix linguae (Intra-oropharyngeal U-turn method). For examination of the hypopharynx and the orifice of the esophagus, the patient is asked to blow hard and puff their cheeks while the mouth remains closed (Trumpet maneuver). Results 8 elderly cases were excluded because they could not perform the adequate ballooning. Finally, 62 cases were investigated. The ballooning the pyriform sinus and posterior wall not only allows accurate assessment of the stretched pharyngeal mucosa but also gives a view of postcricoid subsite and the orifice of the esophagus. The wide endoscopic view of the pharynx was obtained in a series of the procedures (excellent=53/62, 85.4%; good=7/52, 4.5%; and poor=2/62, 7.6%). Among 70 patients, 6 superficial lesions (8.6%) at the oropharynx(n=1) and hypopharynx (n=5) were discovered with BLI system. Mucosal redness, a pale thickened mucosa, white deposits or loss of a normal vascular pattern, well demarcated areas covered with scattered dots are important characteristics to diagnose superficial carcinoma. Conclusion The more progress achieved in transnasal endoscopy rapidly in the last few years, it can improve for observing the blind area using trans-oral endoscopy, therefore the trans-nasal endoscope will be a standard tool for the screening of the upper gastrointestinal tract in the near future.
Part of the book: Endoscopy